This year there are nine women on FORBES’ list of The World’s Most Powerful People, representing 12% of the ranking — in stark contrast to being 50% of the world’s population. Both 2011 and 2012 featured six women leaders. The year previous had five and the inaugural list from 2009 included only 3 — or just 4.4%. Recently elected Park Geun-hye of South Korea joins the other heads of state German ChancellorAngela Merkel(No.5), Brazil’sDilma Rousseff(No. 20) and de facto head of IndiaSonia Gandhi(No. 21). Two of the world’s most important NGO’s are run by women:Christine Lagarde(No. 35) leads theIMFandMargaret Chan(No. 59) steers the World Health Organization.
+ نوشته شده در پنجشنبه نهم آبان 1392ساعت 12:46  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
Twenty-six, or just about a third, of the world’s most powerful people are billionaires. Most of these individuals hail from the U.S., where capitalism and democracy combine to make entrepreneurs as powerful as politicians. Eight power people hail from mainland China and India, two of the biggest and most dynamic economies in the world, both of which are predicted to overtake the U.S. in aggregate GDP in coming decades. But reflecting the overwhelming role of the state in those two nations, particularly in China, only three of these power people are billionaires:Robin Li, head of Chinese Internet search firmBaidu, and oil magnateMukesh Ambani(above left) and steel baronLakshmi Mittal, both Indians. This will likely change in coming years as China’s and India’s richest citizens increase their fortunes and extend their influence across the 2.6 billion people who call these countries their home.
Already we’re witnessing huge shifts in wealth in Asia, particularly China. Ten years ago, there were no billionaires from the mainland. In March, when we last published our list of the world’s billionaires, 122 from China who made the cut, more than any nation outside of the U.S. (The U.S. by September had 461, still fewer than the 2008 peek.) By contrast, India had just 55 billionaires in March, only two more than just before the financial crisis. Since then we’ve found only two more Indian billionaires, both of whom made the bulk of their fortunes in the Middle East. Perhaps as notable is the fact that China’s richest are simply outgaining those in India.
The top two richest Indians for the 6thyear in a row were Ambani and Mittal, the two Indian businessmen who appear in the ranks of the world’s most powerful. But both of their fortunes were flat in the past year and down a combined $51 billion from their 2008 peak. China’s richest, Wang Jianlin (above right), whose Dalian Wanda Group now owns AMC movie theaters, in contrast, gained $6.1 billion in one year.
Here’s a look at how the very richest Chinese and Indians stack up. (Please note, number of billionaires is as of our March billionaire rankings for each representative year. Net worths forChina’s top 100are as of Sept. 26; forIndia, they were calculated as of October 18.)
Net worth: $14.1 billion Real estate mogul with 71 shopping plazas and 40 hotels flew in celebrities like Leonardo DiCaprio to help launch $8 billion mini-Hollywood in coastal city of Qingdao in September. U.S. movie theater chain AMC, which his Dalian Wanda Group bought for $2.6 billion in 2012, filed to go public in the U.S. in August. His fortune is up $6.1 billion in a year.
2. Zong Qinghou
$11.2 billion China’s “king of soft drinks.” His Wahaha sold more than $10 billion in bottled water, teas and other concoctions in past year. In January it signed a 3-year deal to become Manchester United’s first official soft drink partner in China.
3. Robin Li $11.1 billion
CEO of Nasdaq-listed Baidu, China’s largest online search company. Stock is up lately following deals aimed at expanding the scope of its business. In May it paid $370 million for an online video business. In August it bought app store 91 Wireless for $1.9 billion.
4. Li Hejun
$10.9 billion Chairman of China’s leading clean-energy business, Hanergy Holding. Company owns world’s biggest private hydropower station and is largest producer of thin-film solar panels and equipment. Li predicts more than half of world’s energy will come from renewable sources by 2035.
5. Ma Huateng
$10.2 billion Known as “Pony,” Ma leads Tencent Holdings, one of China’s “big three” Internet companies along with Baidu and Alibaba. Tencent makes most of its money from online gaming but pushed into online search in September, paying $448 million for a 36% stake in Sogou, a unit of Sohu.com. Tencent’s QQ instant-messaging service has more than 800 million active users.
INDIA’S TOP 5 RICHEST
1. Mukesh Ambani Net worth: $21 billion India’s richest person for 6 years straight despite no change in the past year. Plans to invest $25 billion in his businesses over next 3 years. His Reliance Industries stands to benefit from government plan to raise gas prices starting in April 2014 but move sparked allegations that Reliance, which lobbied for hike, deliberately suppressed output. It denies wrongdoing but faces lawsuit.
2. Lakshmi Mittal $16 billion His ArcelorMittal is still world’s biggest steel company, but it is weighed down amid supply glut and heavy debts ($16.2 billion).
3. Dilip Shanghvi $13.9 billion Runs India’s most valuable drug company, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, maker of generic versions of such drugs as Johnson & Johnson’s Doxil, which treats cancer. His export-led business benefited from the declining rupee, helping push fortune up $4.7 billion in a year, more than any other Indian.
4. Azim Premji $13.8 billion India’s richest tech tycoon foresees double-digit growth for his outsourcer, Wipro, as U.S. economy recovers. Blames government for India’s economic slide but supported a proposal to increase taxes on the rich.
5. Pallonji Mistry $12.5 billion Derives most of his fortune from his 18.4% stake in Tata Sons, the holding outfit of $100 billion Tata conglomerate, now run by son Cyrus. Benefiting from weaker rupee and new contracts, its Tata Consultancy Services is now world’s second-most-valuable IT services firm, after IBM.
+ نوشته شده در پنجشنبه نهم آبان 1392ساعت 12:8  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
Grocery store shoppers in New York on Wednesday will see a new celebrity magazine vying for their attention at checkout: Bauer Publishing's Closer Weekly. Where the Kardashians and other young celebs usually appear, however, Closer's cover picks include Valerie Harper, Michael Douglas and JFK.
Valerie Harper on the cover of Closer Weekly.
Bauer had earlier said it planned a celebrity weekly aimed at women in their mid-30s and up, but Closer Weekly is now aiming for women 40 and older, with "feel-good" celebrity stories and service-based articles, such as a feature on heels that don't hurt.
"This is a category that was built on a lot of women," said Marc Richards, publisher of Closer. "Now what we're seeing is they don't recognize a lot of these new stars."
Bauer Publishing is introducing Closer Weekly in a harsh newsstand environment, where magazines are suffering a years-long slump. In the first half of 2013, the industry's single-copy sales fell 10% from the period a year earlier, according to the Alliance for Audited Media.
But Bauer remains committed to a business model that places most of the emphasis on newsstand sales instead of subscription sales intended to attract advertising. It hopes differentiating the latest celebrity weekly -- which joins a field already crowded with magazines such as Us Weekly, Star, OK and Bauer's In Touch and Life & Style -- will help it succeed.
"Despite the fact that newsstand is slightly less than what it was, it's still a highly profitable vehicle for us," said Mr. Richards. "But it's tough to be a me-too magazine and just launch and look like someone else. You need to come out with something new and different and unique. We feel we've done that."
Closer Weekly aims to cover the celebrities with whom women 40 and older grew up. "It's kind of a place to come home to and see the people you grew up watching on TV and in the movies," said Annabel Vered, Closer's editor-in-chief. "You were with them for all the important stages of their lives from when they got married, fell in love, and had babies."
"Now they're onto new and exciting things in their lives," she continued, "and we're catching up with them."
Closer Weekly will share some resources with its sibling titles at Bauer, such as the photo and copy desk, but the new title will have its own editorial staff, according to Ms. Vered.
The first issue, which goes on sale nationwide Thursday, includes a wide cast of celebrities, from Julia Roberts and Durmot Mulroney, stars of "My Best Friend's Wedding," to Gavin MacLeod, who played Captain Merrill Stubing on "The Love Boat." The issue's youngest stars are Will and Kate, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, a couple that Ms. Vered said transcends generations.
Although newsstand is Bauer Publishing's primary business model, Closer Weekly will include some advertising. The 76-page inaugural issue has 17 pages of advertising, Mr. Richards said. Closer Weekly's older audience, he added, is an attractive one to advertisers, because they have disposable income, unlike the majority of millennials for whom most celebrity magazines are targeted.
The company said it will distribute 2 million copies to start at the discounted price of 25 cents and follow with a regular cover price of $3.99.
Just as other celebrity magazines have a recurring cast of characters -- think Kim Kardashian for the In Touch crowd -- Closer Weekly will feature its own usual suspects.
"Valerie Harper will continue to be an important story for us, as is Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta Jones -- everyone on the cover," said Ms. Vered, a former editor at large for Life & Style. She also named Katie Couric, Sharon Osbourne, Valerie Bertinelli, Goldie Hawn and even 91-year-old Betty White. The pool of celebrities from which to choose, she said, is large.
One star Closer Weekly readers won't see is Miley Cyrus -- unless she's with her dad.
"You definitely won't see Miley Cyrus in my magazine," Ms. Vered said. "But will you see her with Billy Ray? Possibly. That's an angle that is more interesting to our readers … We might cover the same stories, but we'll cover them from different angles."
+ نوشته شده در پنجشنبه نهم آبان 1392ساعت 11:53  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
به سادگی می توان متوجه شد با ساختارهای سنتی داد و ستد در ایران، نمی توان به نتیجه های 0 و 1 رسید. بلکه مانند هر رفتار انسانی دیگری رفتارهای انسانی منجر به یک رفتار متقن نمی باشد. بلکه در ساختارهای انسانی به ساختار اجتماعی که انسان در آن زندگی می کند، می توان برآیندهای رفتاری خاصی را انتظار داشت که در برخی موارد به هیچ وجه با پیش بینی های رفتاری انجام شده تطابق ندارند. اما تمام آنچه گفته شد به این معنی نیست که نمی توان برای جوامع انسانی برنامه ریزی نمود و توقع داشت که به نظمی که مورد نظر است دست یابند.
ایران نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نیست و می توان با شدت و ضعفی متفاوت به ساختار اجتماعی ایران نیز نقشی در حوزه کسب وکار بخشید و کارکردهای برند را در سطوح مختلف با شدت و ضعفهای مختلف دنبال کرد. در ساختار نیمه سنتی و نیمه مدرن ایرانی نیز می توان به دنبال پیاده سازی ساختارهائی بود که در دنیای مدرن امروز پیاده سازی آنها منجر به موفقیت کسب و کارهائی شده است.
بعد از این مقدمه به ساختار اصلی طرح و توضیح رفتاری آن بر می گردیم.
باید به خاطر داشت زمانیکه شرکتی نقش توزیع کنندگی ( Distributor ) را بر عهده گرفته است به این معنی است دو شاخص را به طور مشخص دنبال می کند:
1- با ساده ترین تحلیل این کسب و کار و محصول مرتبط به ان در منطقه ستاره و یا حداقل گاو شیرده در نمودار بوستون قرار دارد
2- برند انتخاب شده در سطوح جهانی نیز دارای نقشی مشابه به این ساختار می باشد، به این معنی که جایگاه تعریف شده و پذیرفته شده ای دارد
با در نظر گرفتن این دو شاخص باید دانست که با کمک برند اصلی و طرحهای منسجمی که برند مادر برای جایگاه یابی و بازارسازی خود در نظر می گیرد، می تواند ویژه سازی های مورد نظر و متناسب سازی آنها با فرهنگ بومی ایرانی به نتیجه های دقیق و درستی دست پیدا کرد.
نقش شرکتی که در این حوزه ورود می کند ساخت بازار است. نقشی که به طور اصلی بازار را به سمت این محصول سوق می دهد و به تعریفی مشخص، باعث می شود تا نیاز به محصول از سمت بازار به سمت فروشندگان حرکت کند و به طور طبیعی بازار به این محصولات روی مثبتی نشان می دهد.
دواتفاق می افتد،
یکی اینکه مصرف کننده نهائی محصول را به خوبی می شناسد و در نتیجه به سمت این محصولات رویکردی مثبت نشان می دهد. و این یعنی حرکت کردن نیاز در بازار.
دوم اینکه با رفتن این نیاز به بازار، فروشندگان به طور طبیعی در سدد پاسخگوئی به این نیاز بر می آیند و این به معنی جریان یافتن کالا در بازار خواهد بود.
مصرف کننده به راحتی محصول را می پذیرد اگر:
1- بپذیرد که شرکت وارد کننده شرکتی است با پشتوانه مالی مناسب
2- شرکتی است خوشنام که مشتری مداری آن در صدر کارکردهایش است
3- بخش پشتیبانی و گارانتی مناسبی ارائه می کند
فروشندگان ( Retailers ) می پذیرند این کالا را توزیع کنند اگر:
1- باور داشته باشند که شرکت توزیع کننده رقیب آنها در بازار نیست
2- باور داشته باشند که ادعای شرکت مادر در خصوص پشیبانی حقیقی است
3- نیاز سازی در بازار به طور طبیعی در حال جریان است
4- محدوده سودی منطقی شامل فعالیتهای آنها خواهد شد.
در این حوزه ها داشتن تعریفی مشخص برای :
1- چرخه ارزش محصول
2- فرآیندهای توزیع و فروش
آنچه به محصول و شرکت توزیع کننده بقا می بخشد، حفظ حرکت یکپارچه و دائمی این دو با یکدیگر در بازار است، به طوریکه همیشه بازار آنها را د رکنار یکدیگر باور نماید.
+ نوشته شده در جمعه نوزدهم مهر 1392ساعت 19:9  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
Alibaba Group is targeting the U.S. market with a US$200 million
investment in ShopRunner, an online retailer that competes with
Amazon.com, a source familiar with the deal said Friday.
The investment in ShopRunner comes at a time when the Chinese
e-commerce giant has been actively investing in promising technology
ventures in the U.S. and in its home market, according to the source.
Started in 2010, ShopRunner is an online retailer that offers free
two-day shipping on goods for a $79 annual membership fee. The service
rivals Amazon's own Prime membership program, which also offers free
two-day shipping at the same price.
ShopRunner could not immediately be reached for comment on the deal.
Alibaba, best known for its popular Taobao and Tmall retail sites in
China, has long had ambitions to expand internationally. It already has
its wholesale supplier sites Alibaba.com and AliExpress that offer goods
to buyers across the world, including the U.S.
In addition, the company has been making headlines recently over its
plans for an initial public offering, which could happen on a U.S. stock
exchange. News reports have estimated the IPO value to be over $100
Some of the other investments Alibaba has made in recent months
include buying an 18 percent stake in Chinese Twitter-like service, Sina
Weibo. Alibaba spent $586 million on the deal, and has formed a
partnership with Sina for greater access to one of the country's most
popular social networking platforms.
ShopRunner is led by Scott Thompson, who was previously CEO of Yahoo,
before leaving last year over a controversy about his academic
credentials. During his time at Yahoo, the company was negotiating to
return some of its stake in Alibaba to the Chinese company. This
resulted in a $7.1 billion deal announced in May 2012, shortly after Thompson left his position.
+ نوشته شده در جمعه نوزدهم مهر 1392ساعت 18:51  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
شرکتهای بازرگانی با ساختارهای متفاوتی شروع به فعالیت می کنند و به تبع آن نیز مدلهای رفتاری آنها شکل می گیرد.
نقش شرکتهای بازرگانی می تواند یک یاز نقشهای زیر باشد:
- شرکتهائی در نقش توزیع کنندگی و سیاستگذاری ( Distributors )
- شرکتهائی در نقش فروش به مصرف کننده نهائی و همکاری ( Resellers )
نوع و رفتار مدل سازی کارکردی هر یک از این دو مدل متفاوت خواهد بود. از شاخص های مدل اول می توان به امکان کنترل دقیق بازار، سیاستگذاریهای قیمتی، سیاستهای ترویجی اشاره کرد. در حالیکه در مدل دوم، بحثهای کاری به صورت کلان در بحثهای قیمتی خلاصه می شود و به اصطلاح همیشه درگیر جنگ قیمتها ( Price War ) هستند.
بسته به انتخاب مدل کسب و کار طبیعی است که سایز سازمان شرکت و نوع نگرش شرکت به بازار نیز متفاوت می شود. دیگر نمی توان در نقش Distributor بود و کارکردهای یک Reseller را دنبال کرد و بالعکس. نوع ورود به بازار در هر یک از این دو محموعه کاملاً نشانگر درایت مدیران این شرکتها در ساختارسازی کارکردی می باشد. انتخاب اشتباه و در نظر نگرفتن پیش نیازها در هر یک از این دو مدل می تواند آن کسب و کار را با نوسانهای مختلفی درگیر و به تدریج حضور در بازار را کمرنگتر نماید.
+ نوشته شده در دوشنبه پانزدهم مهر 1392ساعت 1:2  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
Samsung last night unveiled Galaxy Gear, a wearable smart device
that aims to bring "freedom" to consumers' experience of mobile
communications, by connecting to multiple Galaxy devices.
The new product
notifies people of incoming messages on their phones, such as calls and text
messages, emails or alerts and shows previews of the messages. People can
either view the full content on their Galaxy Gear screen or choose to
discreetly ignore the message.
Galaxy Gear boasts a
voice operation feature that allows people to conduct hands free calls, draft
messages, create calendar entries and set alarms remotely. The voice operation
feature also allows people to record voice memos.
A memographer feature
sees the addition of a 1.9 Megapixel camera that both records video and takes
pictures, which are then able to be shared on social networks.
JK Shin, chief
executive and president of IT and mobile division, Samsung Electronics, said:
"Samsung’s ongoing smart device innovation leadership reflects our
commitment to listen to our consumers who want their daily lives to be easier
and more enjoyable.
Gear benefits consumers by integrating smart device technology even deeper into
their everyday lives, and bridges the gap between the mobile device and fashion
worlds to create truly wearable technology.
Gear frees users from the need to constantly check their smart devices while
maintaining connections. It provides what we call ‘smart freedom' by allowing
users to choose how, why, when and where they are connected".
The Galaxy Gear will
be launched alongside the Galaxy Note in more than 140 countries on 25
How would you feel about a complete stranger knowing intimate
details about your life? How about your bank details? Well, the intimate
details that you and millions of others upload to social media accounts
every day may not be as secure as you think.
Scams are often inventively disguised to hack your details or cause you
to download vicious malware, such as links to “Win an iPad!”, private
messages from hacked friends with suspicious links, or fake celebrity sex tapes. So tighten your security, keep your personal details safe and avoid scams with this advice.
Social media account security starts with your password. This is often neglected as you can see from this list of most used passwords of 2012.
A strong password contains a mixture of lower case and capital letters,
numbers and punctuation. Avoid using personal information such as
birthdays, family or pet names, numbers in a pattern, and especially the
word “password”. Once you’ve chosen your password, consider using the Bitdefender Wallet feature, part of the new Bitdefender antivirus,
which safely manages and stores passwords. Finally, ensure the email
address you log in with has a secure password too. A bullet-proof
password for Facebook is useless if the password for the associated
email is the name of your dog.
Facebook has useful security features in
the Security Settings section. Here’s a summary for how and why to use
the features in each tab:
Secure Browsing: Select “Browse Facebook on a
secure connection (https) when possible” in order to prevent snooping if
you’re browsing on an unsecure Wi-Fi.
Login Notifications: Choose to be notified by text
and/or email whenever your account is accessed through a computer or
mobile device you’ve never used before. This is a good way to be aware
or any hackers.
Login Approvals: The “Require a security code to
access my account from unknown browsers” option means that, when logging
in from an unknown device for the first time, you need a security code
that will be sent to your phone (either through text or the mobile
Facebook app). Access to your account requires both your account
password and your phone, immediately doubling the strength of your
Code Generator: Enable the code generator through
the Facebook mobile app for easy use of the randomly generated codes
needed for Login Approvals. The Code Generator is a useful tool or Login
Approvals, resetting your password or attaching security codes to third
App Passwords: Attach passwords to Facebook and
third-party apps. For additional security, consider also attaching
security codes through the Code Generator (see above).
Trusted Contacts: Add trusted contacts who can help retrieve your account if you have problems with your password.
Recognized Devices: View or remove registered devices.
Active Sessions: This feature lets you see a list of when and where you have logged in from and the ability to end any session remotely.
Mobile: For increased protection, consider linking your mobile number to your account.
Consider how private to make the personal information you put on Facebook and follow a guide to controlling the privacy settings on Facebook..
Bear in mind that anything you make “Public” could be found using a
search engine, so up your privacy unless you want those holiday photos
of you and your friends in matching mankinis floating around Google.
Watch out for spammy links sent by companies and friends that could potentially damage your computer. If in doubt, use Bitdefender Safego, a free tool which secures your Facebook andscans links for threats.
The public nature of Twitter makes privacy more difficult to
control, so consider the risks before sharing your location or sensitive
information such as your address and bank details. Tweeting your
location (or putting it on FourSquare for that matter) doesn’t just tell
people where you are. It also tells criminals where you aren’t: at
ensures that you are the only one accessing your account by sending a
verification code to your phone. This means that only someone with
access to your phone and your password can get into your account.
Authentic Twitter accounts always use
twitter.com as the base domain, so check the address bar to ensure you
are not being scammed into entering your login details to a fake site.
Be wary of phishing. Phishing is an attempt by an outside source to
gain personal details such as usernames and passwords, often through a
direct message which contains a link. The message often aks you to
confirm your details through a site very similar to the authentic one,
so be cautious of links in direct messages. Use Bitdefender TrafficLight to scan links for malware before you open them.
All information you put on Pinterest is immediately and totally
public. Luckily, a setting hides your boards from search engines. Under
the Visibility section of the settings, select “Hide your Pinterest
profile from search engines” to conceal your fluffy little kittens board
from anyone Googling your name.
Pinterest has raised some copyright issues especially for commercial use. An article in Mashable
sheds light on the issues they face around the image-sharing capacity
of Pinterest. This doesn’t mean you should avoid Pinterest entirely,
even if you are a corporation, but do exercise caution when claiming to
own anything on the site. If you don’t know where something comes from,
disclose that you don’t know or use a tool like TinEye (a reverse image search engine) to locate its origins.
Until a year ago, there was no Android app for Pinterest, and many
fake apps wreak havoc with malware and scams. Make sure the app you
download is the real deal.
Luckily, when you delete any data, Google also deletes it from its
servers, unlike some other social media sites. Google+ only uses an
encrypted SSL connection, which essentially keeps your connection safe
Despite this, Google+ faces its own security challenges. The
greatest one perhaps is that anyone can follow you on Google+ without
your consent, so it’s down to you to make your posts private and to
change the privacy settings for your various circles. For details of how
to change your privacy settings see this article on LifeHacker.
Unchecking the “Help others find my profile in search results” in
“Search Visibility” will prevent snoopers and search engines from easily
finding your profile.
As a professional network, LinkedIn may look like a more secure
place for your personal information. However, the social network has
vulnerabilities if it’s left unsecure. LinkedIn recently had a huge security breach that leaked more than 6.5 million passwords, and users are often targeted by cyber-criminals with malware and spam.
The personal details you share on LinkedIn offer plenty of resources
for social engineers and may be sold on the black market for identity
theft and fraud, so consider limiting the information you share. Edit
your public profile by unchecking the boxes of the sections you wish to
remove from public visibility in ‘Customize Your Public Profile.’
When adding new connections, be careful of fake profiles that may
hide spammers and cyber-crooks who search for valuable data. Change your
password regularly and keep it unique and hard to guess.
The social networks constantly have to
adapt to new threats, so check the useful information on their websites.
For extra tips and tricks, read Bitdefender’s HotForSecurity
blog regularly to keep up to date with the latest ways to keep your
social media safety top notch. Make sure you keep your antivirus
updated, as it will protect you from spam, malware, fraud and phishing
attacks on all social networks.
+ نوشته شده در سه شنبه دوازدهم شهریور 1392ساعت 23:19  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
In case you haven't heard, Microsoft surprised very few people tonight
when it announced that it would purchase all relevant mobile-related
parts of and license patents from Nokia for about $7.17 billion (€5.44
billion). Much has already been said (and will continue to be said)
about the specifics of the deal, but it's interesting to think about how
this purchase will effect Google and the numerous manufacturers of
In terms of market share, Nokia absolutely dominates the Windows
Phone. You can see it in commercials and advertising, from carriers to
Microsoft itself, Nokia is the premier brand for Windows Phone. Though
the scales are dramatically different, this is analogous to Google
purchasing Samsung's mobile handset division
(and probably Sony and LG on top of that). With one small purchase —
Nokia will cost Microsoft less than it paid to acquire Skype — Microsoft
has just taken for all intents and purposes the entire Windows Phone
marketplace into its own hands again.
Although they are overwhelmingly focused on building Android devices,
major manufacturers like Samsung and HTC have been dabbling in making
Windows Phone handsets for the past couple of years. It made sense for
these OEMs to diversify at least slightly to ensure that they didn't
have every single egg in one basket when it came to operating systems.
With Microsoft's acquisition of Nokia's handset
business, we have to think that these manufacturers are going to be
done making Windows Phone hardware going forward, regardless of
Microsoft claiming that it will continue to license the operating
system. And in the end this means very little to the likes of Samsung,
HTC and Huawei whose Windows Phone divisions hardly made a mark on their
bottom lines. They're still just as much "all-in" on Android as they
were before, but now there isn't any clear alternative operating system
for them to choose.
Going forward, every player in the Android space will keep close eye
on Microsoft as it begins to integrate Nokia's handset business into its
mobile strategy. It may not mean much now due to the plain fact of
Windows Phone's weak market share, but Microsoft controlling the entire
hardware and software development for all Windows Phone devices going
forward could be a strategy that keeps other companies on their toes.
+ نوشته شده در سه شنبه دوازدهم شهریور 1392ساعت 23:12  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad
Have you noticed the rising chorus in the management literature proclaiming that work must have meaning? On this very site, for example, several authors have published research-based blog posts on how managers can create the conditions that support meaningful work. This is a very positive development, because work is a huge part of life, and meaning in life is not just a "nice-to-have". We need it in the way we need oxygen. There are few things more life-enriching and life-prolonging in human experience than a sense of meaning.
Critically important to performance and well-being, meaning is what makes people thrive. And conversely, a lack of it undermines people's ability to function on many levels, from job performance to mental and physical health. For example, people who self-report that they are missing a sense of meaning in their lives are far more likely to exhibit the chronic pro-inflammatory stress response that is associated with life-threatening diseases like heart disease and some cancers.
But how many people truly experience their work as meaningful? From my experience conducting research, teaching, and speaking in a number of countries over the last 15 years, I can attest that large numbers of people do not. Across all manner of occupations, from gas station attendants to investment bankers, surveys reveal the numbers of people failing to find meaning in what they do.
So what do you do if you're not in a setting where meaning is obvious — because your organization, for example, exists to provide life-saving technology or to raise people out of poverty? What if you work in place where management is unaware or unconcerned that it could do more to infuse the daily grind with a higher sense of purpose?
You learn to make your work more meaningful yourself. While it helps enormously to have conditions in place that facilitate work meaning (like autonomy in deciding how you do your work), it's important to realize that meaning is ultimately something you create on your own. Indeed, even in jobs that may look dismal from the outside, there are always steps you can take to build the kind of meaning that will make you feel better and work better.
I saw this firsthand when I was a PhD student, in the call center of a large telecommunications company. As part of the research for my dissertation, I was there interviewing and observing customer service representatives while they worked. The pace of work was relentless: as soon as a worker completed a call and hung up the phone, another call would automatically be directed to his or her extension. Every detail of representatives' work was measured and recorded: the number of rings it took them to answer each call; the number of seconds they placed each call on hold; the amount of time they spent resolving each call, etc., as well as daily totals of calls handled and sales made. Supervisors monitored the resulting data in a room that resembled the deck of a starship from science fiction films, with an array of lights that identified representatives who were "out of adherence" with the standards set for the aforementioned metrics. What's more, supervisors could listen in on representatives' calls without their knowledge at any time in order to monitor their performance. If you failed to make a sales pitch on a call that your supervisor was monitoring, you'd be reprimanded. All in all, the work conditions were prime for high stress and low meaning.
Yet there were some employees who experienced their work as meaningful. Joan, a 24-year-veteran of the call center, told me, "I really enjoy my work." She explained, "I am a customer service professional. [Joan's emphasis.] When customers call, it's often because they have a problem that is frustrating to them. I know how to solve every request or problem customers might call with, and I know how to do it in a way that makes them feel good about their call. I resolve the problem so it's no longer stressful for them." The skill mastery she described and demonstrated provided her with meaning, as did the way in which she incorporated this mastery into her identity as a helping professional. Knowing that she was capable of reliably producing a result that she cared about amplified Joan's experience of her work as meaningful. In other words, Joan's recipe for work meaning was self-efficacy mixed with concordance with her personal values, seasoned with connection to and feedback from the beneficiaries of her work.
Sitting by her side with a headset that enabled me to listen in on her calls, I witnessed how Joan systematically built an authentic connection from the first few seconds of her interaction with each caller. "I hear what you're saying, and I know how frustrating this is," she assured her customers. "I understand the issue. I promise that I will help you solve this. I'm so glad I could help you today." Customers responded positively to her competence, compassion, and reassurance, thereby affirming her sense of mastery and boosting her self-confidence and pleasure in her work. Joan's way of working—and of thinking about her work—created a self-reinforcing cycle of performance, meaning, and positive emotion.
Joan's example provides a lesson that everyone can use to make their work more meaningful, regardless of company, industry, or occupation. The key is to link your personal values and motivations to the work you perform. To do this, pay close attention to the elements of your work that you find energizing and fulfilling, and then find ways to incorporate them systematically into how you perform your work. Look for opportunities to make an authentic connection with the people who benefit from your work. Invest some energy in developing positive relationships with others who contribute to the same work results you care about and find energizing.
Since you have the ability to determine how you think about and respond to the conditions you experience, you do have control over the meaning you derive from work. So yes, as you interact with hiring managers and supervisors, keep making it clear that you want meaningful work. But at the same time, do what you can to make the work meaningful.
+ نوشته شده در جمعه بیست و پنجم مرداد 1392ساعت 22:10  توسط Mohammadreza Rostami Rad